Indian Institutions and Fermilab Collaboration

The Indian Institutions and Fermilab Collaboration (IIFC) was established in 2009 via a Memorandum of Understanding signed by the Fermilab director and the directors of four Indian laboratories:
  • Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Mumbai
  • Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi
  • Raja Rammana Center for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore
  • Variable Energy Cyclotron Center (VECC), Kolkata

The MOU targets collaborative R&D on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technologies as applied to high-intensity proton linear accelerators (linacs). The scope of collaboration includes development of the accelerator physics designs for superconducting linacs, cavities and cryomodules at various frequencies, SRF infrastructure, RF power sources, instrumentation, controls and cryogenics.

An "Implementing Agreement between the Department of Energy of the United States of America and the Department of Atomic Energy of the Republic of India for Cooperation in the Area of Accelerator and Particle Detector Research and Development for Discovery Science" (Implementing Agreement or IA, for short) was signed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Indian Department of Atomic Energy in July 2011. This agreement covers a range of accelerator and detector R&D activities that could be undertaken by four U.S. laboratories (including Fermilab) and six Indian institutions. The Implementing Agreement is written under the 2005 "Agreement on Science and Technology Cooperation between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of India" and serves as an umbrella for the creation of annexes covering specific scopes of cooperative activities.

Project Annex I to the Implementing Agreement provides the formal framework for U.S. and India collaboration on high-intensity superconducting proton accelerators, including the PIP-II project at Fermilab and two accelerators to be constructed in India. This framework covers both the R&D and construction phases of these accelerators, all of which are identified as being based on SRF technologies. Annex I was signed in November 2014 by the U.S. Secretary of Energy and the Chairman of the Indian Department of Atomic Energy.

The partners in the IIFC are currently undertaking R&D on a broad front within the specific context of PIP-II. These activities are described in the "Joint Project Document for the Research and Development Phase of the Indian Institutions and Fermilab Collaboration under the framework of Project Annex I to the Implementing Agreement between DAE, India and DOE, USA" signed in November 2014 by the directors of BARC and the DOE Office of High Energy Physics. This document lists approximately 100 specific deliverables for the PIP-II R&D program with delivery dates ranging from 2015 to 2020. Work is currently active in essentially all the defined areas, with several components already delivered from DAE and put into service at Fermilab.

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Chairman of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary to the Government of India, Department of Atomic Energy Sekhar Basu discusses cryogenics with Fermilab engineer Rich Stanek during a visit to the laboratory in 2014. (Photo credit: Fermilab).

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MEBT quadruople doublet magnet delivered by BHABHA Atomic Research Center in 2015. (Photo credit: Fermilab)

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Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer meets Indian scientists in the Wilson Hall atrium in 2016. From left: Vikas Jain (RRCAT), Srinivas Krishnagopal (BARC), Nigel Lockyer (Fermilab), Satish Joshi (RRCAT), Kumar Ranajit (DAE). (Photo credit: Fermilab)

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The Proton Improvement Plan II Injector Test (PIP2IT) assembled at Fermilab's Cryomodule Test Facility in 2017, including the MEBT magnets delivered by BHABHA Atomic Research Center. (Photo credit: Fermilab)

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First SSR1 niobium resonator built by the Inter-University Accelerator Centre, delivered to Fermilab in 2015. (Photo credit: IUAC)

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Members of the RRCAT superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) team with visiting members of Fermilab's PIP-II project team in 2018. (Photo credit: Fermilab)

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Members of the RRCAT SRF team join visiting members of Fermilab's PIP-II project team for a group photo in 2018. (Photo credit: Fermilab)

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Indian Department of Energy and Fermilab officials meet in India in 2018. From left: Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer, PIP-II Project Director Lia Merminga, Fermilab Chief of Staff Hema Ramamoorthi, Chairman of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary to the Government of India, Department of Atomic Energy Sekhar Basu, and Satish Joshi (RRCAT). (Photo credit: Fermilab)